女士們，先生們，大家好！歡迎你們來山西旅游！我先將山西的概況介紹給大家，以方便我們隨后的游覽。 Ladies and gentlemen, good morning! Welcome to travel in Shanxi! First of all, I will introduce the general situation of Shanxi Province to all of you to make our tourism convenient and enjoyable. 一．文明搖籃Cradle of Civilization 在人類邁入文明的門檻時，陶峙遺址向人們展示了陶峙人生活的方方面面。大約在距今4500多年以前，人類歷史進入了原始社會晚期，人類的文明活動不僅遍布于今山西各地，而且更有著豐富的文化內涵，產生了著名的陶峙文化。 In mankind s entry into the threshold of civilization, Taozhi site shows all aspects of life of Taozhi people. At around 4500 years ago, the history of mankind entered a late primitive society, humans’ civilized activities not only took place in every region of Shanxi, but also had a rich cultural connotation, which became the famous Taozhi Culture. 在山西襄汾縣的陶峙遺址，發掘到距今約4200年前的人類文化遺址，其中的3座年代早晚不同的城址特別是中期城址面積約為280萬平方米，是目前所發現的黃河流域史前最大的一處城址，大致相當于傳說中的堯、舜時代。僅從陶峙遺址就可以看出，那時已經出現了國家的雛形，展示著中華民族的文明之光。 From Taozhi site of Xiangfen County in Shanxi, human cultural sites about 4200 ago were excavated. Among them, there were three townsites of different time. Particularly, the mid-termed townsite with an area of 2.8 million square metres is the biggest one in the prehistoric Yellow River basin discovered at present. Its period was roughly equivalent to the legendary Yao, Shun era. Only from Taozhi site we can see that the country has already appeared in its early form at that time, showing the light of civilization of the Chinese nation. 在中華民族的文明進程中，很早就發明了文字。在早期的文字記載中，以平陽為過渡的古唐國，是已知的中華民族最早的國家形態。而以安邑為都的禹，建立了中國歷史上第一個一統中原的大王朝夏。 In the process of civilization of the Chinese nation, characters were invented at a very early time. In the early days of the written records, ancient Tang country transited from Pingyang, is the first state pattern of the Chinese nation as far as we know. And Yu, taking AnYi as the capital, established the firs dynasty which was the unification of the central plains in China s history — Xia. 史前三圣The Three Prehistoric Sages 在創造中華文明的傳說中，“史前三圣”堯舜禹也成長于山西這方土地上。堯的大半生活動在山西，他做部落聯盟首領時，建立起職能完備的城邦，確立了在當時諸方國中的地位，奠定了華夏文明的根基，而最早記載使用“中國”一詞，講述的就是堯建立的古唐國。堯的晚年把盟主的位置讓給了比自己更有才華的舜。 The fairy tales on the creation of Chinese Civilization read that the Three Prehistoric Sages--- Sage Yao, Sage Shun and Sage Yu were all born in Shanxi. Sage Yao spent more than half of his life time in Shanxi, building up full-functioned cities after being the leader of all tribes, establishing his central position over the other states, thus laying the foundation of China’s civilization. The word “China”, which was used in Ancient History of Previous Qin for the first time, refers to the Ancient Tang set up by Yao. In his late years, he demised his position to Sage Shun, who had more abilities than him. 舜繼位后在山西了做了許多好事，把原有的部落聯盟會議逐漸演變成國家機關，使華夏文明邁出了堅實的一步。舜的晚年，又讓位于禹。禹也非常杰出，做出了許多貢獻。 After succeeding to the throne, Sage Shun did many goods for his subjects. And he changed the tribe union meeting into a country department, which strengthened China’s civilization further. As Yao did, he demised his position to Yu, who was also very eminent and had made many contributions. 禹是中原部落聯盟最后一位首領，也是中國歷史上第一個國家政權的創建者。也就是從禹開始，中國進入了文明發展時期。禹還領導人民大規模治理洪水，使人民生活安定，并成為中國最早的水利專家，其功業永載史冊。 Sage Yu was the last tribe leader in Central China, and the first builder of regime. And from this time, China came into times of developing civilization. He led people to control floods to make them have good living conditions and thus became the earliest hydraulic specialist, whose contributions to China would exist in China’s history for ever. 朋友們，在以后的時間我會向大家介紹更多的有關山西文明搖籃和史前三圣的故事，祝大家旅途愉快！ Dear friends, I will introduce more stories about the Cradle of Civilization and the Three Prehistoric Sages of Shanxi Province to you in the later time. Have a nice trip, everyone! 二．氣候物產Climate and Products 山西地勢呈南北狹長狀，東北高，西南低。這就是西南部比東北部氣溫明顯要高的原因。當南部地區的運城酷熱難耐之時，北部山峰，如五臺山，正涼風習習，風景怡人。但是總體來說，山西省屬于高原氣候。春天來得晚，秋天來得早。 Shanxi has a long narrow terrain running north to south. The northeast is high and the southwest is low, and this is the reason why the temperature in the southwest is significantly higher than that of the northeastern part. When the heat in the southern region of Yuncheng is intolerable, the northern part of the Mountain, like Mount Wutai is breezy and has a pleasant scenery. But, generally speaking, Shanxi province belongs to the highland climate with spring comes late and autumn comes earlier. 山西自古以來就有“谷宜五種”之說，如運城地區宜種小麥、棉花，晉北山區宜種莜麥、土豆。即使同一汾河流域，兩岸的平原稻谷飄香，兩岸的山地則雜種玉米、高粱。而且由于不同的氣候和不同的土地條件，已形成了不同風味的土特產，如沁州的小米、清徐的葡萄、原平的梨，都十分有名。此外，汾陽的核桃、稷山的棗等都是馳名一方的土特產品。農產品加工業,像汾陽生產的杏花村酒和清徐制造的老陳醋, 都特別有名, 已遠銷海外。 Shanxi is suitable for a variety of crops to grow, such as wheat, cotton in Yuncheng and naked oats, potatoes in the mountainous area of north Shanxi. In the same region around the Fen River, on both sides of the plains are the fragrant grains and rice, while on both sides of the mountainous fields are the corns and sorghum. Because of the different climate and the different situation of land, different flavors of native products have been formed, such as Qinzhou millet, Qingxu grape, Yuanping pear and so on, they are all very famous. In addition, the walnuts of Fenyang and the dates of Jishan are also Shanxi’s famous native products. The processing of agricultural products, like Xinghua Village wine, a kind of wine which is made in Fenyang and the old mature vinegar which is made in Qingxu is particularly famous, which has already been sold overseas. 山西礦藏豐富?？笪鎦? 特別是煤和鐵儲備非常豐富, 號稱“媒鐵之鄉”。其中煤的藏量居全國各省之首，煤田遍及全省百分之八十以上的縣市。煉鐵技術先進,太原鋼鐵公司特種鋼生產數量最大，世界聞名. Shanxi also has rich mineral resources. Minerals, especially the coal and the iron reserves are very substantial. Shanxi has long been known as “the town of iron and coal “. Coal reserves stay on the nation s top list, coal fields can be found in more than 80 percent of the cities and counties throughout the province. Its smelting technology is very good, Taiyuan Iron and Steel Company has the largest quantities of productions of special steel, which is world famous. 民俗風情Folk Customs 山西還有著豐富獨特的民俗風情。晉中的民間社火、臨汾的威風鑼鼓、運城平陸的地窨院、忻州河曲的鄉由民歌等等，都是古老文化的凝聚與沉積。襄汾丁村民俗博物館、祁縣民俗博物館、定向民情館，集中反映了晉南、晉中、晉北民間傳統的歲時風俗、婚喪嫁娶、禮儀風習、民間工藝和文化娛樂，成為中國北方民族古老文化的縮影。 Shanxi has abundant unique folk customs. Jinzhong Folk Festival, Linfen Drums, the PingLu Diyin Court of Yuncheng, Xinzhou Folk Songs and so on are all the coherences and depositions of ancient culture. The Xiangfen Ding Village Folk Museum, Qixian Folk Museum and Dingxiang Public Sentiment Museum, all reflect the traditional folk customs, weddings and funerals, etiquette, folk art and cultural ethos entertainment of south, central and north Shanxi, and which is the epitome of the ancient culture of the northern minorities. 山西人民勤儉質樸。在漫長的歷史進程中，由于民族融合和不便利的交通，山西境內形成了大量的方言。從遠古時代起, 我省就已經形成了眾多的戲劇、秧歌（一種受歡迎的民間舞蹈）、民歌、雜耍表演, 等等。但是同樣的一種娛樂活動, 在不同的地區卻有著不同的表現形式。 Shanxi people are hardworking, thrifty and simple. Because of the national integration in the long history of Shanxi Province and the inconvenient traffic, there have formed a large number of Shanxi dialects. From ancient times, our province has formed numerous dramas, yangko, (a popular rural folk dance), folk songs, variety shows and so on. But even it is the same amusement, it has different manifestations in different regions. 但如今,便利的交通和通訊工具改變并大大拉近了人們之間的距離。隨著我國經濟的發展,人們越來越重視自己的生活質量。人們正盡力使古老的民俗文化留存下來, 使眾多的方言不被遺忘。現在, 我們正以新的面貌歡迎所有的客人。五臺山佛教文化節,太原國際面食節,平遙國際攝影展覽, 都充分顯示了我們這里的新特點。即使是剪紙、捏面人等這樣的民間藝術,也已經走出了山西, 走出了國門, 流傳到海外。 But nowadays, the convenient traffic and communication has changed and greatly pulled the distance between people in different regions closer. With the development of our economy, people pay more attention to their life quality. People here are trying to keep the old folk culture from disappearing and numerous dialects from being forgotten. Now, we are here to welcome all the guests with a new appearance. Wutai Mountain Buddhism Culture Festival, Taiyuan International Pasta Day and Pingyao International Photography Exhibition, all fully demonstrate the new features. Even such folk arts as paper cutting, dough figurine, etc., have not only gone out of Shanxi, but also gone out of the country to overseas. 朋友們，在以后的時間我會接著向大家介紹山西其他的氣候物產和民俗風情，祝大家旅途愉快！ Dear friends, I will introduce other climate and products and folk customs of Shanxi Province to you in the later time. Have a nice trip, everyone! 三．風云人物Men of the Honor 黃河流經山西，孕育了無數英雄豪杰、仁人志士。在山西的歷史上產生了一批輔國佐政的人才。其中著名的有藺相如，狄仁杰，司馬光，于成龍，陳廷敬等人，或負國君之重托，或當國家之大任，或系天下之安危，赫赫功績，永垂史冊。 The Yellow River flows through Shanxi that gave birth to the countless heroes and people with lofty ideals. In the history of Shanxi, those talented people who helped governing the country emerged in large numbers. Among them are the most well-known ones such as Lin Xiangru, Di Renjie, Sima Guang, Yu Chenglong, Chen Tingjing and so on. They were bearing the governor s great trust, or undertaking the country’s important tasks, or concerning about the world’s safety. Their illustrious merit would be recorded in the history books for ever. 其中，傅說（yue）是商朝君王武丁時期輔政50多年的宰相，大約于公元前1350年出生在平陸。天資聰明，雖生為奴隸，但由于精明能干，又善于思考，所以在長期的勞動中，發明了“版筑發”（古代筑墻時把土夾在兩塊木板中間的一種砌墻方法），用此法筑成堤壩，能有效地遏制洪水泛濫；筑成土墻，可以建筑城墻和房屋，這就保障了人們生活的安定和道路的暢通。 Among them, Fu Yue was the prime minister of Wuding period of the Shang Dynasty, who served the king for more than 50 years. He was born in Ping Liu in about 1350 BC. Although born a slave, because he was intelligent and was good at thinking, he invented the “Banzhu Method“ ( an ancient way of building walls by putting earth between two boards) during his long-term labor. Using this method to build dams can effectively curb the flood. Using this method to build walls and houses can safeguard the people s life and the smooth roads. 藺相如是戰國時期趙國的大臣，政治家，外交家，軍事家。山西臨汾人。他以國家利益為重，出使秦國，留下了流芳千古的“完璧歸趙”的故事。而他與廉頗“將相和”的故事，又譜寫了一曲公忠愛國的贊歌。這支歌，人們世代相傳，激發著強烈的愛國情感，起著凈化人們心靈世界的重要的教育意義，已成為我國傳統文化中最為寶貴的精神財富。 Lin Xiangru was the minister of State Zhao in the Warring States Period. He was a politicians, a diplomat and a strategist. He was born in Linfen of Shanxi Province. He put the interests of his state first and went to State Qing with a task, leaving a legacy history “Wanbiguizhao“. The story “Jiangxianghe” between him and lian Po wrote a patriotic hymn. This song was passed on from generation to generation, stimulating strong patriotic emotions, playing an important role in purificating people’s mind with important educational significances, which has become the most valuable spiritual wealth in China s traditional culture. 山西由于地處中原農耕民族和北方游牧民族的交匯區，民族沖突和民族融合給山西人增添了新鮮的血液，也給山西人以強壯的體魄和勇武的精神。山西歷來猛將如云，如李牧、衛青、霍去病、關羽、張遼、楊繼業等。他們在不同的領域為中華民族的繁榮昌盛做出了貢獻，他們是山西人的驕傲。 Because Shanxi was in the intersection of the central China agricultural people and the northern nomads, the ethnic conflict and national fusion added fresh blood to Shanxi people, giving them strong bodies with the spirit of patriotism. Shanxi has as many valiant generals as the clouds, such as Li Mu, Wei Qing, Huo Qubing, Guan Yu, Zhang Liao, Yang Jiye, etc They made contributions to the prosperity of the Chinese nation in different fields, they are the pride of Shanxi people. 文人墨客Poets and Literary Men 如果說武將號令三軍，沖鋒陷陣，演繹出了石破天驚的一幕又一幕歷史話劇、讓人感佩不已的話，那么植根山西這方土的文人，更以他們的才華，展示出了人類最富魅力的華章。 If we say the generals commanded the armed forces to charge forward, performing the thrilling and ground-breaking historical dramas time after time, letting people keep admiring them, then the scholars rooted in this field of Shanxi showed the brilliant work of human charm with their talent even more. 唐朝是一個空前強盛的朝代，而山西詩人是當時詩壇最活躍的一群，尤其是王勃，王之渙，王維，白居易,溫庭筠等人，寫出了很多千古名篇。王勃是“初唐四杰”之首，一聯“海內存知己，天涯若比鄰”，道盡了朋友間多少情誼；一句“落霞與孤鶩齊飛，秋水共長天一色，”寫盡了多少美景。此外，溫庭筠擅長于填詞，是中國早期最著名的詞人。 The Dang Dynasty was an unprecedented strong dynasy, and Shanxi poets were the most active ones all over the country, especially such poets as Wang Bo, Wang Zhihuan, Wang Wei, Bai Juyi, etc., all wrote their history masterpieces. Wang Bo was the first one of “the four most outstanding poets of the early Tang Dynasty “. “A bosom friend afar brings distant land near”expressed the deep friendship between friends. “ The autumn river sharaes a scenic hue with the vast shy. The evening glow parallels with a lonely duck to fly. “ described how beautiful the scenery was. Besides, Wen Tingjun was good at writng poetic lyrics, who was the most famous lyrics writer of early China. 就文章而言，以唐宋為盛，產生了名震文壇的“八大家”。明清時期，小說發展到中國封建社會的最高峰，產生了《水滸傳》，《西游記》，《紅樓夢》，《三國演義》等四大名著，其中《三國演義》的作者就是山西籍文人羅貫中。而《水滸傳》也是由羅貫中在原作的基礎上續寫完成的。在史學上，漢代的司馬遷和宋代的司馬光前后輝映，而其中的司馬光就是今山西夏縣人，他所寫的《資治通鑒》是不朽的傳世巨作。 As for articles, the most prestigious ones were produced in the Tang and Song Dynasties, Eight Great Men of Letters of the Tang and Song Dynasties appeared at that time which shocked the literary world. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, novels developed to the highest peak of China feudal society, producing the four great classics, namingly The Water Margin, Journey to the West, Dream of the Red Mansion and Three Kingdoms. Among them, the author of Three Kingdoms was Luo Guanzhong who was born in Shanxi. And The Water Margin was also completed by Luo Guanzhong who completed it on the basis of the original work. In historiography, Sima Qian of the Han Dynasty and Sima Guang of the Song Dynasty reflected each other while Sima Guang was a native of today’s Xia County of Shanxi. The Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government written by him is an immortal masterpiece handed down from ancient times. 在哲學上，山西籍的李悝、荀子、王通、柳宗元、薛瑄、傅山等哲學思想家，都在中國歷史上閃耀著智慧的光芒。在科學、佛學、文學、詩畫、劇作、書法上，山西籍的裴秀、慧遠、法顯、王績、宋之問、王翰、盧綸、白行簡、司空圖、米芾、元好問、白樸、關漢卿、鄭光祖等，也都做出了杰出的貢獻。 In the philosophical field, such Shanxi natives as Li Kui, Xun Zi, Wang Tong, Liu Zongyuan, Xue Xuan, Fu Shan were all great philosophers, who showed the shining light of wisdom in Chinese history. In the field of science, Buddhism, literature, poetry, drama and calligraphy, such Shanxi natives as Pei Xiu, Hui Yuan, Fa Xian, Wang Ji, Song Zhiwen, Wang Han, Lu Lun, Bai Xingjian, Sikong Tu, Mi Fei, Yuan Haowen, Bai Pu, Guan Hanqing and Zheng Guangzu all made their outstanding contributions. 朋友們，在以后的時間里我會接著向大家介紹更多的有關山西風云人物和文人墨客的故事，祝大家旅途愉快！ Dear friends, I will introduce more stories about the Men of Honor and the Poets and Literary Men of Shanxi Province to you in the later time. Have a nice trip, everyone! 四．名勝古跡Scenic Spots and Historical Sites 厚重而光輝的歷史必然會創造出燦爛的物質文明，但這些物質文明隨著日月的流逝，能保存至今的只是滄海遺珠了。但山西至今仍有地面不可移動文物3.7萬多處，各級文物?；さノ?000多處，全國重點文物?；さノ?71處，在全國各省份中位居第一。 Heavy and glorious history certainly created brilliant material civilization, but with the passage of the time, these material civilizations which survived are just like the pearls dropped in the ocean. Shanxi now has more than 37000 immovable subaerial cultural relics, more than 6000 protected units of cultural relics of all levels, 271 national key units of cultural relics to be protected.